September marks the start of the risk season for Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs in New Zealand and Australia. This year, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Portugal, and Ukraine have been added to the list of ‘stink bug risk countries’.
In response to the rapid expansion of Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs (BMSB) throughout Europe and North America, Australia and New Zealand have revised their biosecurity requirements and seasonal measures ahead of the 2020/21 BMSB risk season.
The regulatory requirements primarily target importers of goods and cover their responsibility to ensure that certain types of cargoes are properly treated and certified prior to arriving in Australia or New Zealand. However, as ships infested by stink bugs may be refused entry into the two countries, it is also important that ship operators and their crews are familiar with the BMSB seasonal measures applicable at any given time. Crews must stay vigilant to the presence of BMSB and other exotic insects onboard and report any onboard detections to the relevant quarantine authorities at the ship’s destination.
Four new countries have been added to the list of ‘BMSB risk countries’, which now totals 37 countries: Australian authorities also announced Belarus, Denmark, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, UnitedKingdom and Chile have been identified as ‘emerging BMSB risk countries’ and that random onshore inspections of goods from these countries may be undertaken during the 2020/21 season.
Cargo transhipped in any of the BMSB risk countries may also be subject to the seasonal measures. Furthermore, Australian authorities continue to pay special attention to all ro-ro vessels that berth at, load, or tranship in BMSB risk countries.
Due to differences in climatic conditions in the two countries, the BMSB risk season in Australia is a month longer than in New Zealand:
Australia: 1 September 2020 – 31 May 2021
New Zealand: 1 September 2020 – 30 April 2021
Although the two countries continue to work closely together to ensure that seasonal measures are consistent where possible, they will not be conducting BMSB treatment for each other. For example, if goods have been exported from New Zealand for not meeting BMSB import conditions, they will not be permitted to be treated in Australia, and vice versa.
Why is the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug a problem?
The BMSB, or Halyomorpha halys, is an agricultural pest that feeds on, and can severely damage, fruit and vegetable crops. The pest has spread from its native range in East Asia to form established populations in North America and Europe but is not yet established in Australia and New Zealand. If the pest were to find its way to New Zealand or Australia it could seriously harm the countries’ agricultural economies and unique environments.
Like the Asian Gypsy Moth, the BMSB is considered a ‘hitchhiker pest’ that can spread via ships in international trade. BMSB adults seeking shelter from cold weather during winter months tend to find their way into vehicles, machinery, and other types of cargo.
Established in 2012 Shorpak Pty Ltd has fast become a specialised Quarantine & Logistics service provider for the resources sector providing Quarantine & Logistics services to World leading companies within the Oil and Gas and Mining Industries.
Shorpak and UBL have entered into a Heads of Agreement where UBL has granted Shorpak an option to use and exploit the Fume8 Fumigation Technology for the purpose of fumigating containerised shipments primarily for delivery to Barrow Island which is located offshore in the North of Western Australia along with the Northern Territory.
The initial 12 month agreement contains a Royalty payment component based on revenue generated by exploiting or using Fume8 Fumigation Equipment and includes a Minimum Performance Requirement.
UBL and Shorpak intend to work closely together to generate new fumigation opportunities for the use of ethyl formate fumigation in the containerised fumigation market. with Shorpak now designated as the preferred operator for the fumigation of containerised shipments.
UBL has worked closely with Shorpak and Murdoch University to complete multiple successful commercial fumigations at the Shorpak Headquarters in Henderson using the patented Fume8technology.
Over a dozen containers were successfully fumigated using “Beta” generation Fume8 continuous flow technology. The containers were expected to be shipped to Barrow Island in the near future post the fumigation process.
UBL has today taken delivery of its second Fume8 “Beta” generation machine.
Produced in Western Australia the patented technology mixes liquid ethyl formate with nitrogen gas to form an inert, non-flammable, non-toxic vapour. Unlike any other vaporisers, the Fume8 system does not require a mixing chamber and is able to operate in a continuous manner – rather than a batch process.
The patented Fume8 technology has now progressed through the prototype phase and is ready for commercialisation.
Data collected by the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) shows the need for new strategies to counter a rise in strong levels of insect resistance to some grain storage treatments used.
We are seeing strong levels of resistance to phosphine from the rice weevil, the rusty grain beetle, and the saw-toothed grain beetle on-farm – Dr Manoj Nayak
A disruptive fumigation technology developed by a team from Western Australia is expected to have a significant impact on the growth of Australia’s food and agricultural sector.
Universal Biosecurity Limited (UBL) has developed a technology that allows the safe delivery of ethyl formate – a food grade insecticide that until now has been too volatile to use effectively with existing fumigation tools due to its low flammability.
Professor Simon McKirdy is one of the team behind the Fume8 technology and said UBL is planning to raise A$5 million and list on the ASX via an initial public offering before the end of the year. UBL is supported by Cottesloe corporate advisory firm View Street Partners.
“With globalisation, Australia, like most other countries, is importing an increasing number of products from many global sources,” Prof. McKirdy said.
“The speed at which products can be moved by air or sea is also increasing, as is the volume of passengers traveling. All of these represent significant pathways by which pests could reach Australia – leading to a biosecurity invasion.
“The Fume8 technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology for both imports and exports of produce. The technology can further assist the protection of Australian and state borders by providing government and industry with a biosecurity measure with many advantages over those currently used.
“The technology can also provide a new alternative for exported produce that assists in promoting Australia’s clean and green image.”
Prof. McKirdy’s comments come following the release earlier this year of the CSIRO Futures’ latest Food & Agribusiness Roadmap, which outlined Australia’s “unique and untouched” environment acts as a “differentiator amongst foreign markets where local pollution and environmental degradation are clearly evident.”
“Analysis of Australia’s competitive landscape has indicated that of the 25 sectors assessed, Australia had the greatest advantage in agribusiness, which was also one of the largest global opportunities identified.”
UBL raised A$600,000 in seed funds in May 2016, allowing it to develop Fume8 with a view to delivering a product that can be commercialised on a global basis.
The Western Australian agricultural industry was hit hard earlier this year by an outbreak of tomato potato psyllid, which resulted in strict interstate trade restrictions.
“The risks to Australia from a major biosecurity outbreak are the triple bottom line,
Economic – loss of markets, loss of production, increased costs of production. Environmental – loss of biodiversity and ecosystems. Social – impacts on our way or life and amenities,
If the Fume8 technology had already been available to market during the tomato potato psyllid outbreak, it is anticipated the delay in exporting various produce to the eastern states would have been significantly shorter, lessening the devastating impact on WA farmers.”
Trade restrictions throughout Western Australia due to the discovery of tomato potato psyllid continue to hurt farmers, a report by ABC Rural has shown.
The story by Michelle Stanley highlights growers in Carnarvon have been hit hard by the quarantine, which came into force following the discovery of psyllid in WA in February.
An inability to sell their produce, including tomatoes, capsicums and eggplants, interstate has created a glut in the local market, forcing down prices and profitability.
“I’ve spoken to a few [capsicum] growers on the Vietnamese side and they’ve just said they’d never seen these sorts of [low] prices before,” Carnarvon tomato grower Duc Nguyen is quoted as stating in the article.
“They know the produce can’t move, but it’s there, it’s in the ground. They still have to try and get something back out of it.”
Universal Biosecurity Managing Director Simon Andrew said the discovery of tomato potato psyllid highlighted the need for a new, safe and effective biosecurity solution.
“Universal Biosecurity’s unique Fume8 technology provides a safer, more effective fumigation option for produce being brought into Australia,” he said.
“The threat to farmers, to our economy and to our supply of produce from exotic pests is very real – as we have seen in WA this year. We look forward to working with the agricultural industry to mitigate this risk.”
As part of Ports of Auckland’s ambition to be the most sustainable port in New Zealand, the company will require the total recapture of methyl bromide gas used for container fumigation by September 1, 2017, and for all cargoes by the end of the year.
Ports of Auckland CEO Tony Gibson said “Methyl bromide is a very effective pesticide and a key part of New Zealand’s biosecurity defence, but it is toxic to humans and depletes the ozone layer. By recapturing the gas after use we can improve safety, protect the environment and still keep unwanted pests out of New Zealand.”
At Ports of Auckland both containers and loose or ‘breakbulk’ cargo are fumigated by pumping the gas into a container or a tarpaulin covering the freight. After fumigation, the gas is vented to the atmosphere and it is this last stage that will be stopped.
Ports of Auckland has a history of innovation to reduce methyl bromide use. It is the first and only port in New Zealand to use heat treatment, instead of fumigation, for some cargoes. Heat treatment is not suitable for all cargoes (for example fresh fruit) so fumigation is still necessary.
“We are not a major user of methyl bromide, but when it comes to caring for our people and the environment we think it is important to address every issue even if it seems small. Every step we take to reduce our emissions takes us closer to our ambitious goal of having zero emissions by 2040,” concluded Tony Gibson.